Halloween party ideas 2015

Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn has said he stands by his view that immigration to the UK from the EU is not too high.
He told the BBC's Laura Kuenssberg migrants played a valuable role and he was not proposing new restrictions on the rights of people to come to the UK.
Mr Corbyn said Labour was not "wedded" to freedom of movement, but denied this represented any change of stance on his part.
The Conservatives accused Labour of being "in chaos" over immigration.
Mr Corbyn gave several media interviews ahead of a much-publicised speech on Brexit, discussing the issue of whether freedom of movement of EU citizens should persist once the UK leaves.
In his speech, in Peterborough, Mr Corbyn said he supported "fair rules" and "reasonable management" of immigration after Brexit but said that must be set against continued access to markets for British business.

"Labour is not wedded to freedom of movement for EU citizens as a point of principle, but I don't want that to be misinterpreted, nor do we rule it out," he said.
"We cannot afford to lose full access to the European markets on which so many British businesses and jobs depend.
"Changes to the way migration rules operate from the EU will be part of the negotiations."
Talking to the BBC's political editor, Mr Corbyn, who has repeatedly insisted since becoming leader that EU migration to the UK is not too high, was asked if the speech meant he had now changed his view.
He replied: "No. My mind is quite clear that we need to end the exploitation that's going on, we need to maintain a market access within Europe and we need to ensure there are good relations between all communities."
Mr Corbyn said the focus should be on ending the abuse of low-skilled workers under existing EU employment rules and promoting more local recruitment - which he argued would "probably" reduce immigration, irrespective of Brexit.

German car giant Volkswagen has said it sold a record 10.3 million vehicles worldwide last year, despite the continued impact of 2015's emissions cheating scandal.
The VW group saw sales increase by 3.8% in 2016, making it likely that the firm will overtake Toyota as the world's biggest carmaker by volume.
The sales figures include the Audi, Porsche and Skoda brands.
Sales in China surged 12.2%, but US sales fell 2.6% over the year.
VW has been facing setbacks since September 2015, when it admitted installing so-called "defeat devices" in its diesel cars as a way of cheating pollution tests.
On Monday, a senior VW executive in the US, Oliver Schmidt, was charged with taking part in a conspiracy to defraud the US over the scandal, while the company was accused of hiding the issue from regulators.
VW chief executive Matthias Mueller described 2016 as "a very challenging year" for the firm.
He added: "We made strides in resolving and overcoming the diesel crisis and, at the same time, initiated a fundamental change process."
VW's sales for 2016 were boosted by a strong performance in December, when global sales were up 11.8% from a year earlier.
Japanese rival Toyota is likely to report its 2016 sales figures next month. It said at the end of last year that it expected to have sold 10.09 million vehicles, which would give VW the edge.

Plans to "transform" attitudes to mental health, with a focus on children and young people, have been announced by Theresa May.
Additional training for teachers, an extra £15m for community care, and improved support in the workplace were among measures announced by the PM.
Mental health experts said more funding was needed to improve services.
Mrs May's speech comes as she outlined her plans to use the state to create a "shared society".
The government says one in four people has a mental disorder at some point in their life, with an annual cost of £105bn.
Figures show young people are affected disproportionately with over half of mental health problems starting by the age of 14 and 75% by 18.
The prime minister said mental health had been "dangerously disregarded" as secondary to physical health and changing that would go "right to the heart of our humanity".
In the speech at the Charity Commission, Mrs May announced:
  • Every secondary school to be offered mental health first aid training - which teaches people how to identify symptoms and help people who may be developing a mental health issue
  • Trials on strengthening links between schools and NHS specialist staff, including a review of children and adolescent services across the country
  • By 2021, no child will be sent away from their local area to receive treatment for mental health issues
  • Appointing mental health campaigner Lord Stevenson and Paul Farmer, chief executive of the charity Mind, to carry out a review on improving support in the workplace
  • Employers and organisations will be given additional training in supporting staff who need to take time off
  • More focus on community care such as crisis cafes and local clinics, with an extra £15m towards this, and less emphasis on patients visiting GPs and A&E
  • The reallocation of £67.7m, mostly from the existing NHS digitisation fund, for online services, such as allowing symptom checks before getting a face-to-face appointment
  • A review of the "health debt form", under which patients are charged up to £300 by a 

 Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt told the BBC care for children and young people was a "black spot" that needed urgent attention as the pressures of social media, cyber bullying and a big increase in self-harming was a "massive worry for parents".
Mental health charity Sane said the plans needed to "be matched by substantially increased funds to mental health trusts" while Mind said it was "important to see the prime minister talking about mental health" but the proof would be in the difference it made to patients' day-to-day experiences.
Dr Sangeeta Mahajan, whose 20-year-old son Sargaar killed himself after being diagnosed with bipolar disorder, said better access to services was essential.
"They don't discharge patients with adequate information," she said. "The doors were closed to us.
"We were told you either go to A&E or your GP and that is the only way you can come back to us.
"We had no direct access back to the specialist services. That is wrong."
Bed shortages have meant some patients have had to travel hundreds of miles for treatment.
Fiona Hollings, 19, was treated in a specialist eating disorder unit for her anorexia in Glasgow - nearly 400 miles away from her family home in High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire.

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Raising the profile of mental health

By Hugh Pym, BBC health editor
Mental health campaigners certainly recognise the significance of the latest initiative headed by the prime minister.
Theresa May's focus on mental illness in her first major speech on health will in itself raise the profile of the issue and reaffirm the drive to achieve true "parity of esteem" with physical health.
Promoting mental health first aid training in schools in England illustrates the prime minister's desire to see this as more than an NHS-only issue.
But there is no new Treasury money for the plans. Funding for care is still challenging. NHS Providers, representing mental health and other trusts, predicts the share of local NHS budgets devoted to mental health will fall next year.
Ministers will argue money isn't everything but it remains an unresolved part of the mental health agenda.

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Professor Sir Simon Wessely, president of the Royal College of Psychiatrists, welcomed Mrs May's "new and bold vision", but added: "We have a long way to go before mental health services are on an equal footing with those for physical disorders."
Businesses also welcomed the workplace initiatives.
Simon Walker, director general at the Institute of Directors, said employers had "a real role to play" in ensuring the mental health of their workforce.
But while education leaders backed the ideas that focused on young people, they also had concerns.
Malcolm Trobe of the Association of School and College Leaders, said the major problem schools faced was a lack of access to local specialist NHS care and said government plans had to be "backed up with the funding".
Russell Hobby, of school leaders' union NAHT, agreed: "Rising demand, growing complexity and tight budgets are getting in the way of helping the children who need it most."
Liberal Democrat Norman Lamb, a former health minister, said Mrs May was announcing policies already agreed under the coalition government and called it "a puny response" to "cover up for this government's failure" on delivering, while Barbara Keeley, Labour's shadow minister for mental health, questioned why funding was not being ring fenced.
Mr Hunt said the government had endured a "slightly patchy start" with funding, but that with about £1bn more being spent on mental health than two years ago things were "going in the right direction".
In her speech the prime minister also described her wish to create a "shared society", with the state taking a greater role in ending "unfairness".
The emphasis on a "shared society" marks a contrast with her predecessor David Cameron's "Big Society" agenda, which relied on voluntary organisations rather than state intervention.

Cramming all your recommended weekly exercise into one or two weekend sessions is enough to produce important health benefits, a study suggests.
And being active without managing 150 minutes of moderate activity a week was still enough to reduce the risk of an early death by a third.
The findings are based on a survey of about 64,000 adults aged over 40 in England and Scotland.
Health experts said purposeful exercise was key to better health.
Researchers from Loughborough University and the University of Sydney analysed data on the time people spent doing exercise and their health over 18 years.
They found that no matter how often people exercised in a week or for how long, the health benefits were similar as long as they met the activity guidelines.

Fighting the flab

This was good news for people with a busy lifestyle who turned into "weekend warriors" in order to fit in all their recommended physical activity, they said.
Compared with those who didn't exercise at all, people who did some kind of physical activity - whether regularly or irregularly - showed a lower risk of dying from cancer and from cardiovascular disease (CVD), which can lead to heart attacks and strokes.
"Weekend warriors", who did all their exercise on one or two days of the week, were found to lower their risk of dying from CVD by 41% and cancer by 18%, compared with the inactive.
Those who exercised regularly on three or more days per week reduced their risks by 41% and 21%.
Even the "insufficiently active" lowered their risk by a significant amount - 37% and 14%, the researchers said, writing in an article published online in JAMA Internal Medicine.

How much physical activity should I do?

People aged 19-64 should try to do:
  • at least 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity, such as cycling or fast walking every week, and
  • strength exercises (such as lifting weights) on two or more days a week that work all the major muscles
  • 75 minutes of vigorous aerobic activity, such as running or a game of singles tennis every week, and
  • strength exercises on two or more days a week that work all the major muscles
  • a mix of moderate and vigorous aerobic activity every week, such as two 30-minute runs plus 30 minutes of fast walking, and
  • strength exercises on two or more days a week that work all the major muscles
Source: NHS Choices and Public Health England
What do you think? Join the debate on the BBC Lifestyle & Health Facebook page.

Dr Gary O'Donovan, study author and expert in physical activity and health, from Loughborough University, said the key was doing exercise that was "purposeful, and done with the intention of improving health".
"You are not going to fidget or stand your way to health," he said.
He added that a commitment to an active lifestyle was usually accompanied by other healthy lifestyle options, which made a positive difference regardless of body mass index (BMI).
But Dr O'Donovan said no-one yet knew the best way of meeting the weekly recommended exercise total.

'Every little counts'

The study cannot show a direct link between physical activity and a reduction in health risks in individuals.
But extensive research has shown that exercise and a healthy diet can reduce the risk of a range of diseases - such as cancer, heart disease and type-2 diabetes - as well as helping to control weight, blood pressure and reduce symptoms of depression.
Justin Varney, national lead for adult health and wellbeing at Public Health England (PHE), said: "The maximum health benefits are achieved from 150 minutes of moderate activity per week.
"However, every little counts and just 10 minutes of physical activity will provide health benefits."

The year 2016 has been another grim year for those campaigning for human rights in China.
On freedom of speech, religious expression, trades unions and a host of other issues, China's one-party state continues to punish those who try to insist on their constitutional rights.
Meanwhile, through propaganda and censorship it works hard to nurture an unquestioning herd mentality and to discourage any exploration of individual values. But even in this unpromising landscape, defiance takes root in unlikely corners.

'Miscarriage of justice'

We were in the private dining room of a showy restaurant and the boss was already slurring his words. A large man with a level gaze, he'd finished one bottle of fine French wine and was moving on to a second.

As he lit a cigarette, two glasses went over like nine pins, one splashing red wine across the table and the other smashing on to the floor.
The year 2016 has been another grim year for those campaigning for human rights in China.
On freedom of speech, religious expression, trades unions and a host of other issues, China's one-party state continues to punish those who try to insist on their constitutional rights.
Meanwhile, through propaganda and censorship it works hard to nurture an unquestioning herd mentality and to discourage any exploration of individual values. But even in this unpromising landscape, defiance takes root in unlikely corners.

'Miscarriage of justice'

We were in the private dining room of a showy restaurant and the boss was already slurring his words. A large man with a level gaze, he'd finished one bottle of fine French wine and was moving on to a second.

As he lit a cigarette, two glasses went over like nine pins, one splashing red wine across the table and the other smashing on to the floor.

India's Supreme Court once gave an array of curious reasons about why an Indian woman would not make a false rape claim.
In a 1983 judgement, the top court said that western and Indian women were vastly different.
In the West, the judges said a woman may level a false allegation of sexual molestation against a man because she may be a "gold digger", suffering from neurosis, hold grudges against men, want to gain notoriety, be jealous and so on.
"By and large these factors are not relevant in India," the judges said.
The court said an Indian woman in the "tradition bound, non-permissive society" would not lie about being sexually assaulted because such an allegation would lead to her being socially ostracised, "risk losing the love and respect" of her husband and relatives, and if unmarried she would fear the rape might hamper her prospects of getting married.
Mrinal Satish, a doctorate from Yale Law School who teaches at Delhi's National Law University, studied this and some 800 other judgements in all courts and found that myths and stereotypes often informed rape sentencing in India.
"Rape myths are highly detrimental to rape victims. They are prejudicial, stereotyped or false beliefs about rape, rape victims and rapists," Dr Satish says in his latest work on reforming rape sentencing in India.
For one, Indian courts, according to law scholars like Ratna Kapur, have for long viewed the typical rape victim as "chaste, pure, monogamous, honourable and confined to the domestic sphere". She would generally be a "virgin or a loyal wife".
Courts also refer to "typical reactions" by victims in court. One court referred to the demeanour of women raped by a guru in Tamil Nadu - two of them broke down while testifying, and another had felt giddy. In another case, the top court observed that a rape victim "feels a deep sense of deathless shame".
"Since the law prevents courts from using chastity-related factors when trying to fix guilt during trial, the site of stereotyping has now moved to sentencing, where wide discretion existed until recently."
Examining the judgements, Dr Satish found that higher sentences were given to the convicted man when injuries are present on the body of the victim and sentences imposed on men convicted of raping unmarried woman were higher than those imposed on men convicted of raping married women.
"Thus loss of virginity, damage it causes to unmarried women appears to lead to higher sentences," he says.

'Reciprocal passion'

Also, accused men who were relatives, neighbours, or had a relationship with the victim got lower sentences compared with strangers. Defendants convicted of raping victims with whom they had eloped were also given lower sentences in trial courts, high courts and the Supreme Court.
High courts have reduced sentences in cases of elopement saying the offence had been committed because of "reciprocal passion" and "out of youthful exuberance".
Women rights lawyer Flavia Agnes told me things had improved since tough new anti-rape laws were introduced in the country after the brutal gang rape and murder of a student in 2012 in Delhi - although sexual attacks against women and children continue to be reported across the country.
For one, the discretion of the judges has been reduced with the introduction of mandatory minimum sentences for the convicted: seven years for non-aggravated rape and 10 years for aggravated rape.

President-elect Donald Trump's pick to be the new attorney general has denied sympathising with the Ku Klux Klan, in a tough Senate confirmation hearing.
Alabama Senator Jeff Sessions, 69, also pledged to recuse himself from any investigation into former Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton.
A Democratic senator expressed "deep concern" about the Alabama Republican's nomination.
But Democrats do not have the power in the chamber to block his confirmation.
The attorney general, America's top prosecutor, leads the US justice department and acts as the main adviser to the president on legal issues.

Beginning two days of hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee, Mr Sessions, 69, testified that allegations he had once supported the KKK were "damnably false".
"I abhor the Klan and what it represents and its hateful ideology," he added.
Mr Sessions also acknowledged "the horrendous impact that relentless and systemic discrimination and the denial of voting rights has had on our African-American brothers and sisters".
Protesters repeatedly disrupted Tuesday's hearing, including a couple dressed in KKK white robes who chanted: "No Trump, No KKK, No Racist USA."
"Stop this racist pig from getting into power," shouted an African-American demonstrator as she was led out of the hearing by police.
Democratic Senator Dianne Feinstein voiced her concern over "fear in this country, particularly among the African-American community".
She noted Mr Sessions had voted against an amendment affirming that the US would not bar people entering the US on the basis of their religion
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